After setting up Windows 8 and SQL Server 2012 my ASP.NET applications were not able to access my SQL databases.
Whenever I have to setup a PC in the future, I don't want to waste my time (again) to figure out how I have to configure the users correctly. Here is what I did:
My SQL Server is configured to use Windows authentication. First I changed the user(s) of my AppPools in IIS Management to 'NetworkService'.
After that I opened SQL Management Studio and added a new login by selecting 'Security' -> 'Logins' -> 'New Login...':
Now I was able to set the owner of the database to 'NT Authority\Network Service' (in German: 'NT-AUTORITÄT\NETZWERKDIENST'). IIS was now able to access my SQL Server.